# AND-OR logical operation

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At the time of working with SPSS data, I sometimes misinterpret AND and OR logical operators. Especially, when I work with case selection or recode, I find it is tough to me to understand the using of these two operators. I need to learn more about that.

### 1 comment to AND-OR logical operation

• Jack

Nice question and this problem is very normal. I usually hear this problem from my students, especially from the freshers. For your further clarification, I am explaining both the operators in details.

In SPSS research, when you want to relate logically between two or more variables, you have to use AND and OR logical operators. These two logical operators can be combined according to the following rules.

A. The operator AND is expressed by a symbol. The ampersand (&) symbol is used as a valid substitute for this logical operator. On the other hand, for OR, the vertical bar (|) is used in SPSS research.

B. When you go for combining two relations, you should and must use only one logical operator though there is a scope of combining multiple relations into a complex logical expression.

C. When you work to build a logical expression, regardless of the number of relations and logical operators, you will find the result is either true or false. However, the result can be indeterminate if you have missing values in your data set.

D. It is not possible that operators and expressions can be rounded about. For example, A EQ 1 OR 2 is illegal operation. You will have to specify A EQ 1 OR X EQ 2. This is just an example for your understanding where we used two relations.

E. If you want to use complex expressions, you should use ANY and RANGE functions which will work better.

F. for AND operator: if you want to find out the complex expression to be true, you relations must be true in your SPSS research.

G. For OR operator: It is possible that the complex expression will be true when you create the position that either relation is true. It is a most significant condition.

H. It is possible to run AND and OR logical operators if there are missing values in data set in your SPSS research file though the outcome can be found with incomplete information.

The mentioned operators are used in many ways in SPSS research and if you catch the difference once, you will never do such mistake. Hope for the best!